Development Of Biodosimetry Methods In Connection With The Improvement Of Medical Radiological Equipment
Keywords:Cancer, Radiotherapy, Biodosimetry, Markers, Individual Radiosensitivity
In the last decades the use of ionizing radiation for medical procedures, for treatment and diagnostic purposes, has greatly increased. It is known that in addition to the unconditional benefit, radiation rays can adversely affect healthy tissues which cause radioinducedcomplications. The total effect of the radiation exposure on the whole body and on individual cells depends on the dose of radiation as well as the individual radiosensitivity of the tissues The problem of determining the exact absorbed dose, studying the individual biological reactions of the body under radiation exposure, the search for the most characteristic biological changes for these effects occupies one of the key places in modern radiobiology. Ongoing search for relevant effective biomarkers continues Biological dosimetry is a set of tests that make it possible retrospectively to determine the dose of ionizing radiation absorbed by the body. The analysis of chromosomal aberrations by different techniques is the most developed method of quantifying dose to individuals exposed to ionizing radiations. During the last few decades progress has been made in the field of radiation biodosimetry and numerous biomarkers have been proposed at the level of genes, proteins and other macromolecules. In the field of radiation therapy, everything is changing very quickly. A method of cancer treatment using interactions between radiosensitive drugs and neutrons and proton therapy are introduced. Two major forms of radiation energy are employed in medicine: one is transmission radiation used in both radiology and radiation oncology treatment planning using the external beam, and the other is emission radiation used in nuclear medicine and brachytherapy planning. Some limitations of existing biomarkers in developing methods of radiotherapy are shown. The currently used radiation-dosimetric biomarkers can no longer be universal and a constant search for new effective biomarkers is required. According to the IAEA, extensive international multicenter studies are needed to improve the methodology for the clinical application of biodosimetry. The article provides an overview of the development of biodosimetry methods in connection with the improvement of medical radio equipment.